Research

Selected Publications:

  1. D. Lagakos, A.M. Mobarak, M.E. Waugh, “The Welfare Effects of Encouraging Rural-Urban Migration,” Conditionally Accepted,
    Econometrica  Paper Data and Code
  2. A. M. Mobarak, I. Sharif and M. Shrestha, “Returns to International Migration: Evidence from a Bangladesh-Malaysia Visa Lottery,” Conditionally Accepted,
    American Economic Journal: Applied Economics Paper
  3. A. M. Mobarak, “Assessing social aid: the scale-up process needs evidence, too”
    Nature, vol. 609, pp. 892-894 (September 29, 2022), https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-022-03039-2 
  4. H. Reza, V. Agarwal, F. Sultana, R. Bari, A. M. Mobarak*, “Why are Vaccination Rates Lagging in Low- and Middle-Income Countries, and What Can We Do About It?”
    BMJ 2022; 378:e069506, https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj-2021-069506 Paper Link  PDF
  5. E. Miguel and A. M. Mobarak “The Economics of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Poor Countries,”
    Annual Review of Economics 14: 253-285. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-economics-051520-025412, 2022 Paper
  6. A. M. Mobarak*, E. Miguel, et al., “End COVID-19 in Low and Middle Income Countries”,
    Science, 375 (6585): 1105-1110, March 11 2022, https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.abo4089, Paper
  7. A. M. Mobarak and N. Saldanha, “Remove Barriers to Technology Adoption for People in Poverty”,
    Nature: Human Behavior, March 28, 2022, https://www.nature.com/articles/s41562-022-01323-9, Paper
  8. C. Meghir, A. M. Mobarak, C. Mommaerts, M. Morten, “Migration and Informal Insurance: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial and a Structural Model,”
    Review of Economic Studies 89(1): 452-480, January 2022, https://doi.org/10.1093/restud/rdab021  Paper
  9. J. Abaluck*, L. Kwong, A. Styczynski,…S. Luby, A.M. Mobarak*, et al., “The Impact of Community Masking on COVID-19: A  Cluster-Randomized Trial in Bangladesh,”
    Science, https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.abi9069, December 2, 2021.  Link Dataset
  10. N. Meriggi, E. Bulte, and A. M. Mobarak, “Subsidies for Technology Adoption: Experimental Evidence from Rural Cameroon,”
    Journal of Development Economics, vol 153, November 2021, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdeveco.2021.102710  Paper Policy Brief
  11. L. Beaman, A. BenYishay, J. Magruder and A.M. Mobarak, “Can Network Theory-Based Targeting Increase Technology Adoption?”
    American Economic Review, 111 (6): 1918-1943, June 2021. Paper, Online Appendix, Dataset
  12. J. Solis Arce,…, A. M. Mobarak*, S. Omer* et al, “COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance and Hesitancy in Low- and MiddleIncome Countries, and Implications for Messaging,”
    Nature – Medicine 27, 1385–1394, July 2021. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01454-y Paper  Policy Brief
  13. Z. Barnett-Howell and A. M. Mobarak, “Social Networks Analysis in Agricultural Economies,”
    Handbook of Agricultural Economics, Elsevier, 2021, ISSN 1574-0072 Paper
  14. Egger, D.,…, A. M. Mobarak*, et al. “Falling Living Standards during the COVID-19 Crisis: Quantitative Evidence from Nine Developing Countries,”
    Science – Advances, February 5, 2021, DOI:  10.1126/sciadv.abe0997 Paper
  15. Barnett-Howell, Z., A. M. Mobarak and O. J. Watson, “The Benefits and Costs of Social Distancing in High and Low-Income Countries,”
    Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene January 13, 2021, https://doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/traa140Paper
  16. D. Lagakos, S. Marshall, A. M. Mobarak, C. Vernot, M. Waugh. “Migration Costs and Observational Returns to Rural-Urban Migration in the Developing World,”
    Journal of Monetary Economics, 113: 138-154, August 2020 Paper
  17. A. BenYishay, M. Jones, F. Kondylis, A. M. Mobarak. “Gender Gaps in Technology Diffusion,”
    Journal of Development Economics, 143, March 2020 Paper Blog Post
  18. C. A. Davis and A. M. Mobarak, “The Challenge of Scaling Effective Interventions: A Path Forward for Research and Policy,”
    World Development, v 127, March 2020 Paper
  19. A. BenYishay and A. M. Mobarak, “Social Learning and Incentives for Experimentation and Communication,”
    The Review of Economic Studies, Volume 86, Issue 3, May 2019, Pages 976-1009, https://doi.org/10.1093/restud/rdy039   Paper Audio Summary Online Appendix and Data/Replication Files
  20. M. Lipscomb and A. M. Mobarak, “Decentralization and Pollution Spillovers: Evidence from the Re-drawing of County Borders in Brazil,”
    Review of Economic Studies, 84 (1): 464-502, January 2017 Paper Online Appendix
  21. R. Heath and A. M. Mobarak, “Manufacturing Growth and the Lives of Bangladeshi Women,”
    Journal of Development Economics, 115: 1-15, July 2015 [Lead Article] Paper Policy Brief Blog Post
  22. G. Miller and A. M. Mobarak, “Learning about New Technologies through Social Networks: Experimental Evidence on Non-Traditional Stoves in Rural Bangladesh,”
    Marketing Science, 34 (4): 480-499, July-August 2015 [Lead Article] Paper
  23. R. Guiteras, J. Levinsohn and A. M. Mobarak, “Encouraging Sanitation Investment in the Developing World: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial,”
    Science 348 (6237): 903-906, May 22, 2015 Paper [Supplement, Data Repository/Replication Code]
  24. R. Guiteras, A. Jina and A. M. Mobarak, “Satellites, Self-reports, and Submersion: Exposure to Floods in Bangladesh,”
    American Economic Review (Papers and Proceedings), 105(5): 232-36, May 2015 Paper
  25. G. Bryan, S. Chowdhury and A. M. Mobarak, “Under-Investment in a Profitable Technology: The Case of Seasonal Migration in Bangladesh,”
    Econometrica
    , 82(5): 1671-1748, September 2014 Paper [Supplement, Econometrica link, Data Repository/Replication Code]
  26. K. Maskus, A. M. Mobarak, E. Stuen, “Doctoral Students and Immigration Policy,”
    Science, 342(6): 562-563, November 1, 2013 Paper
  27. A. M. Mobarak, R. Kuhn and C. Peters, “Consanguinity and other Marriage Market Effects of a Wealth Shock in Bangladesh,”
    Demography, 50(5): 1845-1871, October 2013 Paper [Supplement]
  28. A. M. Mobarak and M. Rosenzweig, “Informal Risk Sharing, Index Insurance, and Risk-Taking in Developing Countries,”
    American Economic Review: Papers and Proceedings
    , 103(3): 375-380, May 2013 Paper [2012 Working Paper]
  29. M. Lipscomb, A. M. Mobarak, T. Barham, “Development Effects of Electrification: Evidence from the Topographic Placement of Hydropower Plants in Brazil,”
    American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 5(2): 200-231, April 2013 Paper
  30. E. Stuen, A. M. Mobarak, K. Maskus, “Skilled Immigration and Innovation: Evidence from Enrollment Fluctuations in U.S. Doctoral Programs,”
    The Economic Journal, 122(565): 1143-1176, December 2012 [Lead Article & Shortlisted for Royal Economic Society Prize] Paper [Supplement]
  31. A. M. Mobarak, P. Dwivedi, R. Bailis, L. Hildemann and G. Miller, “The Low Demand for New Cookstove Technologies,”
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(27): 10815-20, July 2012 Paper
  32. A. M. Mobarak, A. Rajkumar, M. Cropper, “The Political Economy of Health Services Provision in Brazil,”
    Economic Development and Cultural Change, 59(4): 723-751, July 2011 Paper
  33. D. Brown and A. M. Mobarak, “The Transforming Power of Democracy: Regime Type and the Distribution of Electricity,”
    American Political Science Review, 103(2): 193-213, May 2009 Paper
  34. D. Kellenberg and A. M. Mobarak, “Does Rising Income Increase or Decrease Damage Risk from Natural Disasters,”
    Journal of Urban Economics, 63: 788-802, May 2008 Paper
  35. S. Creane, R. Goyal, A. M. Mobarak, R. Sab, “Measuring Financial Development in the Middle East and North Africa: A New Database,”
    IMF Staff Papers 53(3): 479-511, April 2007 Paper
  36. A. Bento, M. Cropper, A. M. Mobarak, K. Vinha, “The Impact of Urban Spatial Structure on Travel Demand in the United States,”
    The Review of Economics and Statistics, 87(3): 466-478,  August 2005 Paper
  37. A. M. Mobarak, “Democracy, Volatility and Development,”
    The Review of Economics and Statistics, 87(2): 348-361, May 2005 Paper

* denotes “Corresponding Author” in large-N authored papers.

Revise and Resubmit:

  1. G. Bryan, S. Chowdhury, A.M. Mobarak, M. Morten, J. Smits, “Encouragement and distortionary effects of conditional cash transfers,” Revise and Resubmit,
    Journal of Public Economics Paper
  2. M. Bakhtiar, R. Guiteras, J. Levinsohn, A.M. Mobarak, “Social and Financial Incentives for Overcoming a Collective Action Problem,” Revise and Resubmit,
    Journal of Development Economics Paper
  3. N. Barker, A.M. Mobarak, et al. “Migration and the labour market impacts of COVID-19,” Revise and Resubmit,
    European Economic Review  https://doi.org/10.35188/UNU-WIDER/2020/896-2
  4. A. Kharel, A. M. Mobarak, A. Shenoy, C. Vernot, “Seasonal Poverty and the COVID-19 Pandemic In South Asia”, Revise and Resubmit,
    Applied Economics Perpsectives and Policy Paper
  5. R. Ahsan et al. “Using Migration Data for Early Detection of Pandemic Risk Exposure,” Revise and Resubmit
  6. G. Miller and A. M. Mobarak, “Gender Differences in Preferences, Intra-household Externalities and Low Demand for Improved Cookstoves,” 2nd round Revise and Resubmit,
    The Economic Journal, 2013  Paper
  7. D. Purbasari and A. M. Mobarak, “Protection For Sale to Firms: Evidence From Indonesia,” Revise and Resubmit Paper

Working Papers:

  1. N. Meriggi, M. Voors,…, A. M. Mobarak* et al, “Solving Last-Mile Delivery Challenges is Critical to Increase COVID-19 Vaccine Uptake: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial,” Pre-print
  2. X. Gao, W. Liang, A. M. Mobarak, R. Song, “Restrictions on Migration Create Gender Inequality: The Story of China’s Left-Behind Children,”  Paper
  3. R. Madhok, F. Noack, A. M. Mobarak, O. Deschenes, “Urbanization and the Re-organization of Agriculture,” Paper
  4. G. Khanna, W. Liang, A. M. Mobarak, R. Song, “The Productivity Consequences of Pollution-Induced Migration in China,” Yale Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper 1083. Policy Brief
  5. J. Assunção, M. Lipscomb, A. M. Mobarak, D. Szerman, “Agricultural Productivity and Deforestation: Evidence from Brazil” Paper
  6. J. Caro-Burnett, J. A. Chevalier, and A. M. Mobarak, “Is Habit a Powerful Policy Instrument to Induce Prosocial Behavioral Change?” Paper
  7. R. Guiteras, J. Levinsohn, A. M. Mobarak, “Demand Estimation with Strategic Complementarities: Sanitation in Bangladesh” Paper
  8. A. G. Lira and A. M. Mobarak, “Enforcing Regulation when Agents Learn and Adapt.” Paper Policy Brief Audio Summary
  9. A. Akram, S. Chowdhury and A. M. Mobarak, “Effects of Emigration on Rural Labor Markets”  Paper
  10. A. M. Mobarak and M. Rosenzweig, “Risk, Insurance and Wages in General Equilibrium” Paper
  11. R. Guiteras and A. M. Mobarak, “Does Development Aid Undermine Political Accountability? Leader and Constituent Responses to a Large-Scale Intervention” Paper
  12. A. M. Mobarak and M. Rosenzweig, “Selling Formal Insurance to the Informally Insured” Paper
  13. N. Aksunger, C. Vernot, R. Littman, M. Voors, N. Meriggi,…,W. Janssens, A. M. Mobarak*,“The Effect of the Covid-19 Pandemic on Mental Health in Low and Middle-Income Countries” Paper
  14. J. Smits, A. Malik, J. Elharake, A. M. Mobarak*, S. Omer, Did Risk-based or Age-based Vaccine Prioritization for Covid-19 Save More Lives?” Paper
  15. Y. Cho, D. Kalomba, A. M. Mobarak, V. Orozco and D. Wolfson, “Gender Differences in the Effects of Vocational Training: Constraints on Women and Drop-out Behavior” Paper

Other Refereed Book Chapters and Papers:

  1. M. Levine, A.M. Mobarak, et al. “How is Covid-19 affecting gender inequality in low-income countries?” Economics Observatory, March 2021 Link 
  2. M. Krupoff, A.M. Mobarak and A. Van Geen, “Evaluating Strategies to Reduce Arsenic Poisoning in South Asia: A View from the Social Sciences,” Asian Development Review, vol. 37, no.2, pp 1-24 Paper
  3. A.M. Mobarak, M. Reimao, “Seasonal Poverty and Seasonal Migration in Asia,” Asian Development Review, vol. 37, no. 1, pp 1-42, 2019 Paper
  4. A. M. Mobarak, T. Chaudhry, et al. “Estimating the Health and Socioeconomic Effects of Cousin Marriage in South Asia,” Journal of Biosocial Science, 51(3), 418-435, 2018 Paper
  5. P. Dutt and A. M. Mobarak, “Democracy and Policy Stability,” International Review of Economics and Finance, 42: 499-517, March 2016 Paper
  6. J. Brown, A.M. Mobarak and T. Zelenska, “Barriers to Adoption of Products and Technologies that Aid Risk Management in Developing Countries,” Background Paper for the World Development Report 2014, World Bank Paper
  7. K. Sudhir, A. M. Mobarak, et al. “Research Opportunities in Emerging Markets: An Inter-Disciplinary Perspective from Marketing, Economics and Psychology,” Customer Needs and Solutions, 2(4): 264-276, December 1, 2015 Link
  8. K. Maskus, A. M. Mobarak, and E. Stuen, “International Graduate Education and Innovation: Evidence and Issues for East Asian Technology Policy,” Asian Economic Papers, Vol. 6, No. 3, Pages 78-94, Fall 2007 Link
  9. S. Creane, R. Goyal, A. M. Mobarak and R. Sab, “Banking on Development” Finance and Development, 40(1), March 2003 English French Spanish Arabic
  10. S. Creane, R. Goyal, A. M. Mobarak and R. Sab “Evaluating Financial Sector Development in the Middle East and North Africa: New Methodology and Some New Results,” Journal of the Middle East Economic Association, volume 6, 2004 Paper

Invited Columns:

  1. Meriggi, A.M. Mobarak, et al. “Tracking the economic consequences and response to COVID-19 in Sierra Leone,” Link
  2. A.M. Mobarak, A. Styczynski, H. McAnnally-Linz, “We conducted the largest study on masks and COVID-19: They work,” The Washington PostSeptember 9, 2021 Link. (Reprinted Anchorage Daily News Link)
  3. A.M. Mobarak, A. Styczynski, H. McAnnally-Linz, “Comment: Study shows masks work, widespread use is possible,” HeraldNetSeptember 10, 2021 Link
  4. J. Abaluck and A.M. Mobarak, “In a First, Randomized Study Shows That Masks Reduce COVID-19 Infections,” Yale InsightsSeptember 1, 2021 Link
  5. A.M. Mobarak, M. Rehman, and S. Balsari, “Countries in South Asia must learn from each other in fight against Covid,” The Indian ExpressJune 17, 2021 Link [simultaneously printed: The Dawn (Pakistan), The Daily Star (Bangladesh), Nepali Times]
  6. A.M. Mobarak and N. Saldanha, “3-pronged strategy to save Nepal from Covid-19,” Nepali Times, May 21, 2021 Link
  7. A.M. Mobarak and A. Saleh, “Changing mask-wearing norms is no easy task, but it is possible,” The Daily StarMay 21, 2021 Link
  8. A.M. Mobarak, “Study in Bangladesh Identifies Keys to Encouraging Mask-Wearing,” Yale InsightsMay 7, 2021 Link
  9. A.M. Mobarak, “Skilled Workers Flee from Polluted Cities, Hampering Economic Growth,” Yale InsightsApril 13, 2021 Link
  10. A.M. Mobarak, “Faldende levestandarder under COVID-19-krisen,” Best Practice nordic, March 15, 2021 Link
  11. A.M. Mobarak, “Saving Lives Saves Livelihoods,” Foreign Policy, March 9, 2021 Link
  12. M. Levine, N. Meriggi, et al. “How COVID-19 Is Making Gender Inequality Worse in Low-Income Countries – and What to Do About it,” Yale Insights, March 8, 2021 Link
  13. Z. Barnett-Howell, O. J. Watson, and A. M. Mobarak, “Benefits and costs of social distancing in rich and poor countries,” FE Outreach, January 30, 2021 Link
  14. A.M. Mobarak and M. Khan, “COVID-19 is pushing migrants back to their home countries,” open Democracy, January 21, 2021 Link
  15. A.M. Mobarak, “Sustaining Bangladesh’s growth,” The Financial Express, December 7, 2020 Link
  16. J. Abaluck and A.M. Mobarak, “Getting all Bangladeshis to wear masks,” WhiteBoard, December 1, 2020 Link
  17. A.M. Mobarak and R. Mahbab, “Opinion: What the US can learn from how African countries handled Covid,” CNN, November 3, 2020 Link
  18. S. H. Vermund, A. M. Mobarak, and H. P. Forman, “We could tackle COVID under an effective leader. Trump is not that leader,” Fortune, November 2, 2020 Link
  19. A.M. Mobarak and M. Reimao, “Los migrantes temporales, un grupo especialmente vulnerable ante el COVID-19,” BID Mejorando vidas, July 22, 2020 Link
  20. A. M. Mobarak and E. Papaioannou, “Developing countries need to take their own approach when reacting to COVID-19,” Wheeler Institute for Business and Development, June 16, 2020 Link
  21. N. F. Meriggi and A. M. Mobarak, “This Country Fought Ebola. It May Beat Another Disease,” The New York Times, June 16, 2020 Link
  22. A. M. Mobarak, B. Chalise, C. Vernot, “Measuring the human cost of lockdown,” Nepali Times, June 13, 2020 Link
  23. A. M. Mobarak, “For the Rural Poor, the Coronavirus Crash Isn’t Yet Here,” Foreign PolicyJune 8, 2020 Link
  24. Z. Barnett-Howell and A. M. Mobarak, “The value of social distancing is not equally distributed,” VoxEU, May 7, 2020 Link
  25. A. M. Mobarak and J. Wen, “How microeconomics can help devise evidence-based policy responses to COVID-19,” OECD Development Matters, May 6, 2020 Link
  26. A. M. Mobarak and Z. Barnett-Howell, “Poor Countries Need to Think Twice About Social Distancing,” Foreign PolicyApril 10, 2020 Link
  27. A. M. Mobarak, “Responding to Covid-19 in the developing world,” Dhaka Tribune, April 6, 2020 Link
  28. A. M. Mobarak and C.A. Davis, “The Nobel Winners in Economics Are On the Right Track,” Foreign Policy, December 9, 2019 Link
  29. G. Bryan, A.M. Mobarak, et al. “Lessons learned from a scale-up of a seasonal migration RCT in Bangladesh,” International Growth Centre, November 15, 2019 Link
  30. R. Kwok, J. Levinsohn, A.M. Mobarak, “Study Leverages Peer Effects to Encourage Adoption of Hygienic Latrines, Yale Insights, July 17, 2019 Link
  31. A.M. Mobarak, “Instead of Bringing Jobs to the People, Bring the People to the Jobs,” Foreign Policy, July 4, 2019 Link
  32. A. M. Mobarak and V. Dimble, “Can the Microcredit Model Be Improved?” Yale InsightsApril 26, 2019 Link
  33. T. O’Callahan, A. G. Lira, A. M. Mobarak, “Experiment to Save an Endangered Fish Holds Lessons for Policymakers,” Yale Insights, November 5, 2018 Link
  34. A. M. Mobarak, K. Levy, M. Reimao, “The path to scale: Replication, general equilibrium effects, and new settings,” VoxDev.org, November 21, 2017 Link
  35. A. M. Mobarak, K. Levy, M. Reimao, “The path to scale: From randomised control trial to scalable programme,” VoxDev.org, November 14, 2017 Link
  36. A. Barclay, A. M. Mobarak, et al. “Examining Temporary Migration as a Solution to the Lean Season in Indonesia,” Hasanuddin Business and Economics Review, vol 1, issue 1, pp. 17-26 (June 2017) Link
  37. A.M. Mobarak, “Does Immigration Create Jobs?” Yale Insights, March 30, 2017 Link
  38. A. M. Mobarak, “The US has never been this divided on immigration. It’s time for compromise,” Agenda, World Economic Forum, February 6, 2017 Link
  39. K. Levy, K. Verclas, A. M. Mobarak, M. Reimao, “Seasonal Hunger, Deprivation are Under the Radar,” Policy Options, Institute for Research on Public Policy, Canada, December 23, 2016 Link
  40. A.M. Mobarak, “Can Improving Farming Productivity Save the Rainforest?” Yale Insights, March 30, 2016 Link
  41. A. M. Mobarak, “Appointing a Gender Equal Cabinet is Good for Canada – but Not for the Reason You Think,” World Bank Let’s Talk Development (Chief Economist’s blog), November 17, 2015 Link
  42. A. M. Mobarak, “The Nobel Prize in Economics and the Dangers of Foreign Aid,” Yale Insights, November 5, 2015 Link
  43. R. Heath and A. M. Mobarak, “Manufacturing growth and the lives of Bangladeshi women,” International Growth Centre Blog, August 4, 2015 Paper Link
  44. A. M. Mobarak and A. Zwane, “The Myth of Nepal’s Missing Men,” Yale Insights, June 1, 2015 Link
  45. R. Guiteras, J. Levinsohn and A. M. Mobarak, “Encouraging Household Investment in Sanitation,” Ideas for India, May 13, 2015 Link
  46. K. Maskus, A. M. Mobarak and E. Stuen, “International graduate students are critical to scientific discovery,” VoxEU, April 28, 2013 Link
  47. A. M. Mobarak, “Immigration and Innovation,” New York Times – Economix, February 12, 2013 Link
  48. A. M. Mobarak, “Formally Insuring the Informally Insured,” Ideas for India, November 16, 2012 Link
  49. A. M. Mobarak, “How to Keep More Girls in School? Lessons from Bangladesh,” Ideas for India, September 24, 2012 Link
  50. E. Duflo, S. Galiani and A. M. Mobarak, “Improving Access to Urban Services for the Poor: Open Issues and a Framework for a Future Research Agenda,” Jameel Poverty Action Lab Urban Service Initiative 2012 Link
  51. D. Kellenberg and A. M. Mobarak, “The Economics of Natural Disasters,” Annual Review of Resource Economics, Vol. 3, Issue 1, pp. 297-312, October 2011 Paper
  52. M. Lipscomb and A. M. Mobarak, “Does Corruption Exacerbate the Human Effects of Financial Crisis” Chapter 9 (pp. 361-399) in Rajivan and Gampat, eds, Perspectives on Corruption and Human Development Vol 1, Macmillan Publishers for UNDP 2009 Link
  53. S. Chowdhury, A. M. Mobarak, and G. Bryan, “Migrating away from a Seasonal Famine: A Randomized Intervention in Bangladesh,” Human Development Research Paper No. 41, New York: United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report Office.   (Background paper for the UNDP Human Development Report 2009) Link
  54. S. Creane, R. Goyal, A. M. Mobarak and R. Sab, “Financial Development and Economic Growth in the Middle East and North Africa” Newsletter of the Economic Research Forum for the Arab Countries, Iran and Turkey 10(2), Summer 2003
  55. S. Creane, R. Goyal, A. M. Mobarak and R. Sab, “Financial Sector Development in the Middle East and North Africa,” IMF Working Paper 04/201 Working Paper
  56. S. Creane, R. Goyal, A. M. Mobarak and R. Sab, “Financial Development in the Middle East and North Africa,” International Monetary Fund Pamphlet, 2003 English Arabic